Nuclear Reactions in Gaseous Stars

ABSTRACT: In the Standard Model of gaseous stars, temperature is primary both in the initiation of thermonuclear reactions to form heavier elements and the emission of radiation. These processes have been described using thermodynamic expressions. However, within any given thermodynamic relation, not only must units balance on each side, but so must thermodynamic character. Temperature, whether or not equilibrium conditions are established, must always be intensive in macroscopic thermodynamics, and mass must be extensive. This ensures that the laws of thermodynamics are respected. The theory of temperatures and nuclear reactions within gaseous stars is constructed from the kinetic theory of an ideal gas, by which temperature is introduced, in combination with gravitational and Coulomb forces. The resulting thermodynamic relations impart a nonintensive character to temperature and a nonextensive character to mass. Consequently, the theory of nuclear reactions in gaseous stars is invalid. Deprived of the only theoretical means by which the Standard Model justifies stellar nuclear reactions, the theory of gaseous stars is not viable. The most reasonable alternative rests in lattice confinement fusion and the recognition that the stars are comprised of condensed matter, namely metallic hydrogen.
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The Journal’s mandate is to publish rigorous and methodological examinations of past, current, and advanced concepts, methods and results in physics research. Physics Essays dedicates itself to the publication of stimulating exploratory, and original papers in a variety of physics disciplines, such as spectroscopy, quantum mechanics, particle physics, electromagnetic theory, astrophysics, space physics, mathematical methods in physics, plasma physics, philosophical aspects of physics, chemical physics, and relativity. The establishment of such an advanced physics journal was endorsed, among others, by one of its first Editorial Board members and Nobel Prize Gerhard Herzberg, who wrote a Foreword in 1988 in which he states that “…..The new journal promises also to give greater freedom to authors in discussing critical and unsettled points in the foundations of physics, a policy that relieves some of the rigidity of the present reviewing system adopted by many journals.….”, and added “….It is my pleasure and privilege to wish the new journal all possible success. May it contribute to the better understanding of the foundations and development of physics and inspire an appreciation for the value of unrestrained scientific inquiry…”. The “Foreword” by Gerhard Herzberg (Phys. Essays, Volume 1, No. 1 p. 3, Year 1988) is available by clicking here. This policy was confirmed 15 years later in an Editorial (Phys. Essays, Volume 15, No. 1 p. 3, Year  2003) available by clicking here.